Caernarfonshire covers an area of 480 square miles with a population of over 127,000. The principal towns are Bangor, Betws y Coed, Caernarfon, Conwy, Llandudno, Porthmadog and Pwllheli. There are historic castles in Caernarfon, Conwy and Cricieth.
The west of Caernarfonshire is largely Welsh speaking although Welsh speakers and Welsh-first signage are to be found throughout the whole county. Farming and tourism continue as the primary industries, and the retail industry is still a strong mixture of big-name companies and small, local, family-run businesses.
In the county town of Caernarfon and its surrounding villages, the Welsh language is not only thriving, but on the rise with an estimated 88% of the total population being first language Welsh speakers, and 97% of 11-14 year olds speaking Welsh fluently. It is the community language of the entire area with newcomers finding themselves highly encouraged to take a local Wlpan course to begin learning the language of their new home.
There are many types of public administration in Wales with each form of administration having their own sets of geography. The Parliamentary/Assembly Constituencies which contribute to the make-up of the Caernarfonshire are Meirionnydd Nant Conwy, Caernarfon and Conwy. For the purpose of local government, Caernarfonshire is administered by Gwynedd and Conwy Borough Councils. There are four Police Areas in Wales, three Fire Authorities Areas and five Health Authorities Areas; Caernarfonshire is covered by the North Wales division of each. Under the Lieutenancies Act of 1997 and the Sheriffs Act of 1887, the preserved county of Gwynedd is used for the purposes of the Lieutenancies and Shrievalty, and covers the entire county of Caernarfonshire.